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【HLCAで医療英語を学びませんか?】 医療専門の英語学校・看護留学のHLCAは、医療英語を学ぶことができたり、 海外ボランティアを通じ海外医療について学ぶことができる語学学校です。

「医療英語を最短で習得したい」 「海外医療現場の経験を積みたい」 という方は以下からお問い合わせください!




Swimming or To Swim?


I like swimming.

I like to swim.


Which sentence is correct? What is the difference between to swim and swimming? When do we use ‘to swim’ and when do we use ‘swimming’?

どちらの文が正しいのでしょうか。 ‘to swim’‘swimming’の違いは何でしょうか。 また、どういう時に‘to swim’‘swimming’を使い分けるのでしょうか。


These are common questions by English language learners. Well before we go on answering all these questions, remember this: ‘Swimming’ in this sentence, is what we call Gerund. ‘To swim’ is what we call Infinitive.

これは英語学習者に共通する疑問として挙げられています。先程挙げた例文が良い例です。 この文では‘swimming’を動名詞といい、‘to swim’を不定詞といいます。


So in this video lesson, we will learn when and how to use each of these forms properly. So turn your volumes up because you’re in for a grammar treat!

この動画ではいつ、どのようにこれらの用法を適切に使われているかを学んでいきます。 では、音量を大にし、耳をすまして文法について勉強していきましょう!


Gerunds vs Infinitives 動名詞と不定詞



What is a Gerund? A gerund is a noun made from a verb by simply adding –ing. Going, Eating, Hiking. Remember that all Gerunds end in –ing, however it’s confusing to identify a Gerund in a sentence since it looks exactly like the present participle. Let’s look at this sentence:

動名詞とは? 動名詞とは、動詞に-ingが付いた形のものです。(例. Going,Eating,Hiking) 動名詞は全て-ingの形で終わります。 ただし、現在分詞と形が似ているので、混乱するかもしれません。 次の例文を見てみましょう。


Eating in class is not allowed. (Gerund)

I am eating in class. (Infinitive)


Eating in the first sentence is a Gerund. Here it is the subject of the sentence and thus it functions as a noun and not a verb.



On the second sentence, I am eating in class, eating here is not a gerund it is a present participle. Here it is used as a tense. So remember that a Gerund is a noun that looks like a verb.

二つ目の文は、現在分詞となります。ここでは時制を用いています。 覚えておいて欲しいのは、動名詞は名詞であるということです。


To answer the question of when are we going to use the Gerund like in our first example, I like swimming. Let’s take a look at these three simple rules:



  1. Subject = Gerund(主語=動名詞)

Use a gerund when you need an action to be the subject of your sentence



For example:例文

Reading is my favorite hobby.

Learning English is fun.


The infinitive or the to + verb form can also be the subject of a sentence but it’s too formal and it’s not common.




  1. Preposition + Gerund(前置詞+動名詞)

After a preposition, use a gerund.


For example:例文

Thank you for helping me.


In this sentence, we have the preposition for before the gerund helping.



I thought of going to the beach.


The gerund ‘going’ after the preposition ‘of’.




  1. Verb + Gerund(動詞の原形+動名詞)

You can use the gerund after the main verb. However, an infinitive can also do this. So how do we know which one to use after a certain verb? As a rule, we use the gerund after the following verbs: appreciate, avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, keep, miss, quit. These are not all the verbs but these are the most common ones.

動詞の原形の後に動名詞を用いることもできます。 この場合は不定詞も同様に用いることができます。 特定の動詞の後に何を用いたらいいのでしょうか。 一般的に、以下のような動詞(appreciate, avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, keep, miss, quit等)は、動名詞として用います。 この動詞が全てではありませんが、主に使われる動詞です。


For instance, this sentence:



I enjoy watching movies.


The gerund ‘watching’ after the main verb ‘enjoy’.



I keep asking her out.


The gerund ‘asking’ after the main verb ‘keep’.



So remember that these verbs MUST be followed by a gerund.



But don’t forget that there are some verbs that take either a gerund or an infinitive. These common verbs include: like, love, hate.



So there you have it. We have the answer to our first question in this video. Which one is correct: I like swimming or I like to swim? Well, both are correct since the verb use in both sentences is “like”.

この最初に挙げた動画は、どちらの文が正しいのでしょうか。 実はとちらも正しい文です。


You can say I love learning English. I love to learn English. Both of these are correct without a change in meaning.

“I love learning English”“I love to learn English”も両方正しい言い方です。意味は一緒になります。




On the other hand, infinitive has this form: ‘to + base form’ of the verb. For example: to go, to rise, to play. When do we use infinitive? Let’s bear in mind these three simple infinitive rules:

それに対して不定詞は‘to+動詞の原形’の形を用います。 例えば、to go, to rise, to playといったものです。 不定詞はどのような時に使うのでしょうか。 次の3つの例を用いて不定詞の用法について覚えましょう。


  1. Adjective + infinitive(形容詞+不定詞)

After an adjective, it is common to use an infinitive. A gerund is possible in some cases, but an infinitive is usually the better choice. So adjectives like sad,happy, glad, fun, pleased, relieved, surprised are usually followed by an infinitive.

形容詞の後は、不定詞を用いるのが一般的です。動名詞はいくつかの場面で用いることができますが、不定詞を通常用います。 例えば、sad,happy, glad, fun, pleased, relieved, surprised のような形容詞は通常、不定詞の後に続きます。


For example:



She was sad to know that you are leaving.


The infinitive ‘to know’ after the adjective ‘sad’.

形容詞’sad’の後に’to know’の形が続きます。


I was happy to help them.


‘to help’ after the adjective ’happy’.

形容詞 ‘happy’の後に’to help’の形が続きます。


  1. Noun + Infinitive(名詞+不定詞)

If the main verb has an object that is a noun or a pronoun, it is almost always followed by an infinitive instead of a gerund.



For example:



Did you want me to call you?


To call here is the infinitve after the pronoun me, which is the object of the main verb.

ここでは代名詞’me’の後に’to call’を用い、主動詞の目的語になります。


Another example:



The kids asked their mother to play with them.

The infinitive ’to play‘ after the noun mother, which is the object of the main verb asked.

不定詞’to play’が名詞’mother’の後に続き、主動詞’asked’の目的語になります。


  1. Verb + Infinitive(動詞+不定詞)

As a rule, these verbs MUST be followed by an infinitive: ask, decide, encourage, expect, hope, intend, learn, plan, seem, tell, want.

一般的に、以下の動詞は不定詞の形をとります。 (ask, decide, encourage, expect, hope, intend, learn, plan, seem, tell, want)


There are more of these verbs, but I’m just including these since these are the most commonly used.

If you guys want a list of what verbs should be followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive, try typing into any search engine for a complete list.




So anyway, going back, here’s an example:



I plan to go to Hawaii next week.


Here we have the infinitive ‘to go’ after the main verb ‘plan’.

主動詞’plan’の後に不定詞’to go’の形が続きます。


Let’s have another:



I seem to have lost my bag inside the airport.


The main verb ’seem’ followed by the infinitive to have.

動詞’seem’の後に不定詞’to have’の形が続きます。


Also, an important thing to remember is that a gerund and an infinitive cannot go together in a sentence.

This is a very common ESL mistake .You cannot say:




I like to swimming. (×)

I love to hearing you sing. (×)


These are absolutely wrong. Okay? Gerunds and infinitives are enemies; they are not friends.

これらの文は間違っています。 動名詞と不定詞はライバルなので、一緒に使うと喧嘩してしまいます。


I know it’s going to be hard at first to actually perfect the use of gerund and infinitive but with more practice, it’ll get easier. So practice more and remember that I like swimming and I like to swim are both correct.

動名詞と不定詞を完璧に使いこなすのは最初は難しいと思います。 でも、何度も練習すれば、分かってくると思います。

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